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Mexico (1823-1864/1823-1880)

Estados-Unidos Mexicanos / United-States of Mexico

Last modified: 2005-03-12 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: iturbide (agustín de) | victoria (guadalupe) | peso de victoria | mexico | eagle (brown) | without crown | republic |
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[1823-1864/1823-1880 Mexican National Flag] 4:7[Unofficial proportions]
[National Flag and ensign]
[Variant - this flag is one of several which could be displayed]
[Flag no longer in use]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002

Flag and coat of arms adopted:

by Decree of April 14, 1823.

Flag and coat of arms abolished:

By Decree of September 20, 1863. See the notes bellow.

Flag and coat of arms re-adopted:

July 15, 1867. See the notes bellow.

Flag and coat of arms re-abolished:

September 15, 1968. See the notes bellow.



  • On land:

  • Civil, state and war flag.

  • At sea:

  • Civil, state, and war ensign.
    Naval jack (torrotito de proa)






  • Both the French interventionist Army headed by Gen. Forey and the Conservative Army entered Mexico City on June 10, 1863. Gen. Forey ordered on June 16 to form a Junta Superior de Gobierno, who proclaimed the Empire, and asked Archduke Maximilian of Habsbourg to take the throne. On July 13, the Junta was replaced by the Regencia del Imperio (Empire Regency), who adopted by decree (Sept. 20) a new coat of arms.

  • The Republican resistance (1862-1967) led by Benito Juárez Garcíía, at the time, Constitutional President of the United Mexican States, continued using the Republican flag with the most variety of versions of the coat of arms. Such a flag would be officially restored on July 15, 1867.

  • April-14-1823 Decree was in effect until that of 1968 abolished it, not considering the Imperial Age (1863-1867). In the meantime, some republican governments occupied fruitlessly on determininig and unifying the correct position and other features Of the National Coat of arms, always basing on the 1823 Decree.


    Republican flag

    In 1823, when Iturbide fell, the Congress decreted that the crown hold by the eagle was to be removed, but adding a half circle of green oak (enciño) and laurel branches.
    Jorge Candeias, 27 Oct 1997, translating from La Bandera Mexicana website

    When the country became a Republic on April 14th, 1823, the Constituent Congress changed the emblem, removing the crown and adding oak and laurel branches below. These elements have lasted until nowadays, though the eagle has changed from profile to three-quarters" and to affronty.
    Santiago Dotor, 29 Dec 1998, summarizing from

    Coat of arms

    [Mexican Republic Coat of Arms]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 19, 2001

    Variants of the Republican flag

    [Variant-1 of the Mexican Republic flag]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 19, 2001

    [Variant of the Republican flag used in Monterrey, Upper California]
    Cick on the image to see a larger one.
    Posted by Voker Keith, May 2000.