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Mexican Empire (1821-1823)

Mexico: First Mexican Empire, First Empire, Iturbide Empire

Last modified: 2004-12-29 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: iturbide (agustín de) | imperio | empire | proposal | variants | mexico | eagle (brown) | crown | empire |
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[Mexican Empire (First Empire) flag] 4:7[Unofficial proportions]
[National Flag, State and War ensign]
[Variant - this flag is one of several which can be displayed]
[Flag no longer in use]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002
Flag and coat of arms adopted: by Decree of November 2, 1821
and confirmed by Decree of January 7, 1822
Flag and coat of arms abolished: by Decree of April 14, 1823.


  • On land:
  • Civil, state and war flag.
  • At sea:
  • Civil, state, and war ensign.
    Naval jack (torrotito de proa)


First Mexican national flag

On October 7, 1821, the Regencia, provitional body formed to chose the emperor who rules the newly independent nation realized the Empire has no Imperial Coat of Arms nor National Seal, even the flag should be determined.
It was voted for creating a commission made up by Sota-Riva, Tagle, and Comde de Regla.
Discussion about the coat of arms and flag took place on October 19, 1821.
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002

On November 2, 1821, Don Agustin de Iturbide, as president of the provisional goverment composed by other 38 personalities, decreed: that the National Flag should contain vertical stripes in colours green, white and red, adding to the white centre a crowned eagle, resting on the legendary nopal (Nahoa). This flag was used in every ceremony during Iturbide’s Empire since his coronation at July 21, 1822.
Jorge Candeias, 27 Oct 1997, translating from La Bandera Mexicana website No lorger in service.

The first decree (during the Empire) to establish the Imperial National flag dated on January 7, 1822 says:

"Article unique:(...) the national flag and flags of the army shall be tricolored, adopting forever the colors green, white and "encarnado" (flesh-colored -red-) arranged vertically, with the crowned eagle in the center of the white stripe, according the following design..."

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002

Imperial coat of arms

[Imperial arms] [Imperial simplified arms]

Images by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002

Variant of the Empire's flag - Possible national ensign

[Variant of the Imperial Flag] [National ensign]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002

Military flags during the Empire (1821-1823)

[Anverse side of Imperial military flag (1821-1823)] [Reverse side of Imperial military flag (1821-1823)]

by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002

This is one example of a Mexican military flag preseve by the Museo Nacional de Hisotoria in Mexico City. With the eagle looking in both side of the flag to its left wing.

Horizontal-colored flags were also flown only for military use. Let's recall that originally, the flag proposed by the Regencia was in horizontal stripes, but finally the verticall arrangement was adopted.

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002