Buy State Flags from Allstate FlagsBuy US flags from Five Star Flags
This page is part of © FOTW Flags Of The World website

Vojvodina (Autonomous Province, Serbia)

Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina

Last modified: 2006-08-19 by ivan sache
Keywords: vojvodina | serbia | stars: 3 (yellow) | st. paul | lion (yellow) | deer | tree: poplar | construction sheet |
Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors

[Flag of Vojvodina]

Flag of Vojvodina - Image by Željko Heimer, 29 June 2004

See also:

Presentation of Vojvodina

Vojvodina (21,506 sq. km; 2,031,992 inhabitants in 2002; capital city, Novi Sad) is a region in northern Serbia with the status of Autonomous province. Vojvodina is situated in the southern part of the Central Danube Plain and includes some of the richest agricultural land in former Yugoslavia.

The Slavic peoples have settled in Vojvodina during the VIth century. In the late IXth century, Magyar Hungarians settled in Vojvodina and the area became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the mid-XVth century together with most of Hungarian territory, to be partly liberated by Austria (which has already ruled the rest of Hungary) in 1683-1699 and completely in 1716-1718.

The Serb population was much increased by emigrants from Balkans during the Ottoman conquering and also by immigration during the Ottoman rule over the area. In 1690, numerous Serbs migrated into the area from territories to the south occupied by the Ottoman Empire and were granted a large personal autonomy in exchange for obligation of serving in the Habsburg army. When the Ottoman Empire ceased to be the threat to the Habsburg lands, Serbs faced growing pressure to be deprived of their status and turned into serfs, along with the pressures for their conversion to Catholicism and for Hungarization. They opposed this by demanding a self-governing crown land, which they founded during the revolution in 1848 - Serbian Voivodeship (Serbian, Srpska Vojvodina; German, Serbische Wojwodschaft). In 1863, the Serbian Voivodeship was abolished by the Emperor (who was its Grand Voivode) and previous boundaries between Hungary (Bačka and Banat) and Croatia (Srem) were reestablished. In 1918, Vojvodinian regions declared unification with Serbia (Srem - on 24 November 1918, Bačka and Banat - on 25 November 1918) and subsequently became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia.

During the Second World War, Bačka was assigned to Hungary, Srem to the Axis puppet Independent State of Croatia, and Banat was nominally governed by the Axis puppet government of Serbia, the real power being in the hands of the local German minority leaders, who made it a separate territory in most regards and planned to make it the core of a separate German state. After liberation in 1945, Vojvodina was proclaimed an autonomous province within Serbia. Since then, its autonomy was enlarged several times until 1974, when it was made an almost separate territory. In 1989, most of statehood-like features of the autonomy were abolished. The autonomy was more narrowed in 1990 by the then adopted Constitution of Serbia, which also contained backdoors that enabled reduction of the autonomy to a formality in the following years. While the reductions of autonomy in 1989 passsed with large support of the citizens (due to their dissatisfaction with provincial Communist government, which they had previously forced to resign in 1988) and those in 1990 without much opposing, later reductions caused growing pressure for restoration of a real autonomy. After the regime change in 2000, the autonomy was returned to its nominal constitutional level by the so-called "omnibus-law" in 2001. The status of Vojvodina will eventually be determined by the new Constitution of Serbia, whose preparing is currently under way.

The present population of Vojvodina is very mixed, mostly as the result of planned immigrations in the XVIIIth century and after both World Wars. The land is populated with Serbs, Hungarians, Croats, Slovaks, Romanians, Ruthenians, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Germans, Ukrainians, Czechs and many others, the total number of nationalities being more than twenty. It shall also be noted that many people never declare belonging to any nationality during the census, being of mixed origin or simply not caring for national affiliation.


  • N. Tomašević (Chief Editor). Vojvodina, Belgrade, Jugoslovenska knjiga, 1980
  • Reporter magazine, #247, p. 20; Belgrade, 14 January 2003 (information on number of inhabitants in 2002 and their nationalities)
  • Vojvodina Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia

Tomislav Todorović*, Željko Heimer & Uros Žižmund, 25 April 2005

*I found no sources for the history of Vojvodina after 1980, but wrote it all by myself as the witness of those events. I did my best to be politically neutral and stick to the facts which can be confirmed, although it is rather difficult to achieve this in present-day Serbia.

Tomislav Todorović, 25 April 2005

Flag of Vojvodina

Decision on the flag

The flag of Vojvodina is prescribed by Decision Odluka o zastavi Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine, adopted on 27 February 2004, published in Službeni list Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine 2/04 in Novi Sad on 2 March 2004, and valid on 10 March 2004.
The following translation of the official document was made by Željko Heimer and reviewed by Christopher Southworth. The original document was kindly provided by Jos Poels.

Based on the Article 21(2) of the Statutes of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina (SL APV 17/91) and Article 1 in the Recommendations of the Commission for the preparation of a Decision on the symbols of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina (SL APV 15/2003),

The Assembly of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina, in its session held on 27 February 2004, (hereby) adopts the

Decision on the Flag of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina

Article 1. This Decision determines the flag of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina and prescribes the protocol on use of the flag.

Article 2. The flag of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina, the territorial autonomy in the Republic of Serbia, the modern European region and a member of the Assembly of European Regions consists of three colours, red, blue and white arranged horizontally in proportions of 1:8:1. In the middle of the blue field there are three yellow stars set in a circle. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is 1:2. The flag is double-sided bearing the same design on the both sides.

Article 3. The flag of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina is displayed in the shape determined by this Decision, according to this Decision, other regulations and the customary protocols, in a way that does not degrade the reputation and the dignity of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina.

Article 4. The flag of the AR Vojvodina is displayed together with the flag of the Republic of Serbia when it is so determined by the Law or other regulations that prescribe the display of the flag of the republic of Serbia.
The flag of the AR Vojvodina shall not be used if it is damaged or if its appearance is unsuitable for use.

Article 5. During the sessions of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina, the flag of the AR Vojvodina is displayed alone on the buildings in which the sessions of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina and of the Executive Council of the AR Vojvodina are held, and in the halls in which the sessions of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina and the sessions of the Executive Council of AR Vojvodina are held.
On the territory of the AR Vojvodina the flag of the AR Vojvodina may be displayed alone, (and may) be displayed in public meetings, assemblies, ceremonies and other public gatherings at which the AR Vojvodina is represented.
The flag of the AR Vojvodina shall be displayed in those official halls used by the Chairman of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina and (of) the chairman of the Executive council of the AR Vojvodina, and may be displayed also in other official halls of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina and (of) the Executive Council of the AR Vojvodina.

Article 6. The etalon (original) of the flag of the AR Vojvodina is preserved in the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina, and flags manufactured and in use must be made according to it.

Article 7. The flag of the AR Vojvodina shall not be permitted to touch the ground; it shall not be used as base, support, table covering, curtain or similar.
The flag shall not be used to cover vehicles or other objects, and shall not be used to decorate conference tables or rostrums except in the form of a table flag.
If the flag is displayed on a rostrum it shall be set on a staff on the speaker's right side or on the wall behind the speaker so that the speaker does not shield it.

Article 8. This Decision will become valid upon the eighth day following publication in the Službeni list Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine.

Assembly of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina
01 nr. 010-2
Novi Sad, 27 February 2004-06-15

Chairman of the Assembly of the AR Vojvodina
Nenad Janko, m. p.

Željko Heimer, 28 June 2004

Construction sheet of the flag

[Construction sheet]

Construction sheet of the flag of Vojvodina - Image by Željko Heimer, 28 June 2004

The drawing attached to the aforementioned Decision indicates the following construction details:

Width 100, length 200, top stripe width 10, bottom stripe width 10, imaginary circle in the middle of the flag - diameter 37, circle circumscribing each star - diameter 30, (beginning) at 12 o'clock three five-pointed at 120 degrees (intervals), with one point (facing) outwards.

Željko Heimer, 28 June 2004

Adoption process of the flag

According to Dnevnik, the flag of Vojvodina was adopted on 27 February 2004 with 79 votes for, 13 against (representatives of DSS) and 5 abstentions (Liberali Srbije and former Social-Democrats).

The adoption process of the flag of Vojvodina is described in Dnevnik (article by B.D. Savić).

The Regional Parliament received the design proposals for the flag and the anthem of Vojvodina "Ode of Joy" and the Serb tricolour with three stars - in the middle of the blue field there shall be three stars symbolizing the three parts of Vojvodina: Bačka, Banat and Srem.
The Statutory Commission of the Vojvodina Parliament adopted the design proposals for the flag and the anthem of Vojvodina and forwarded them for adoption in the Regional Parliament. A member of the Commission, Aleksandar Kravić said in an interview that the proposals had been adopted unanimously with only one abstention of the representative of Democratic Party of Serbia, while all others were in favor.
According to him, the flag of Vojvodina shall be the tricolour, based on the Serb flag (red-blue-white), with the middle blue field being enlarged and containing in its center three yellow stars symbolizing the three parts of Vojvodina, Srem, Banat and Bačka. The parliamentaries shall also receive the proposal of the anthem, the "Ode of Joy" by Beethoven, that is already the European anthem.
< "The three Serb colours symbolize the connection of Vojvodina with Serbia, while the three stars symbolize the connection with the European Union and the European orientation of Vojvodina" explained Kravić.
The designs of the flag and the anthem of Vojvodina were made my the Regional Commission, composed of a Chairman and Vice Chairmen of the Vojvodina Parliament. On the proposals shall be decided on the parliamentary session on 27 February, and it may be assumed that they shall gain the majority support, if the Representatives of the three leading parties in Vojvodina government - Democratic Party, League of Socialdemocrats and the Union of Vojvodina Hungarians - shall vote as their Representatives in the Statutory Commission.
The adoption of the anthem and the flag should finalize the symbols of Vojvodina, after the previous adoption of the coat of arms on 27 June 2002. This decision was then voted for by 68 of 120 Representatives, the votes against were from the DSS, with abstentees from the New Democracy (now the Liberals of Serbia) and the Vojvodina Coalition. The regional coat of arms was voted for after the initiative by the Chairman of the Regional Parliament, Nenad Janko.
Since the adoption, the coat of arms of Vojvodina is in prerogative use within the seals of all the regional bodies, on the official inscriptions on the buildings of the regional bodies and the bodies of the local administration, and on the charters and other public acknowlegments of the Region.

Željko Heimer, 18 February 2004

Perception of the flag

According to an article in Vjesnik (Zagreb, Croatia) dated 6 March 2004, the newly adopted flag of Vojvodina and the slightly older coat of arms might be expecting a short life.
Namely, it is said in the article that the emblems were adopted by the current Parliament of Vojvodina that is soon due to reelection. It is considered by many that the current Parliament has no longer popular support, and that the newly elected Parliament would be more "pro-Serbian" and much less "pro-regional", and might easily revoke the adopted symbols. The recently elected right-winged government of Serbia has a poor opinion of the current Parliament, and expects to gain support in the new elections in Vojvodina, too. The current Vojvodina Parliament is therefore said to have adopted the symbols in a desperate move to retain even a symbolic autonomy, that might be suppressed after the elections.

Anyway, it seems that the new symbols were not favorably perceived in Belgrade. The article quotes the two pejorative nicknames given to the coat of arms and the flag. The flag is called salveta (a tissue, a napkin), while the coat of arms is called kod dva piva (at two beers'). This last is supposedly to sound like a name of a pub or similar, and the reference is to the lion and the deer. I suppose that the two charges recall two popular beer brands. I would take care regarding these nicknames - it may well be that they are kind of invented by journalists for the sake of making the story more juicy.

Željko Heimer, 6 March 2004

When the new flag was hoisted in front of the Vojvodina Parliament in Novi Sad, angry people burnedit in riots on streets, saying that the only legitimate flag in Vojvodina was the Serbian flag.

Miloš Djurić, 22 March 2004

Coat of arms of Vojvodina

[Coat of arms of Vojvodina]

Coat of arms of Vojvodina - Image by Željko Heimer, 29 June 2002

The Parliament of Vojvodina adopted the coat of arms of the province on 28 June 2002.
The coat of arms shall be displayed together with the arms of Serbia, and is purely protocolar, displayed on diplomas, seals, etc.

Zikica Milošević, 29 June 2002

The use of the coat of arms of Vojvodina is prescribed by Regulation: Uputstvo o bližem urečivanju upotrebe grba Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine, published in Službeni list Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine, 18/2003.
The Regulation prescribes who can use the coat of arms, when and how, and how can be obtained the permission to use it in certain instances etc. The text refers to the 2002 Decision on the adoption of the coat of arms, Odluka o upotrebi istorijskog znamenja Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine, published in Službeni list Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodine, 10/2002.
On a local party website, there are extracts from the 2002 Decision. This extracts have a chapter entitled "Heraldic explanation" that claims that the coat of arms is based on the flag of the Zemun National Guard in 1848.

Željko Heimer, 14 May 2004

The three fields of the new coat of arms of Vojvodina bear the coats of arms of counties, then Hungarian and Croatian, granted in XVIIIth century:

  • Bačka. The coat of arms of Bačka (Hungarian: Bács) was granted by King Leopold I (1657-1705) in 1699. It was later (1861?) retained for the united County of Bács-Bodrig.
    In blue field on a green grass standing St. Paul wearing blue shirt and red toga with golden nimbus holding in dexter a downpointed silver sword with golden hilt and in sinister a black book (Bible). Sombor (Hungarian, Zombor) was the capital of the county.
    The county was divided between Hungary and Yugoslavia after the First World War. The part remaining in Hungary was finally incorporated into Bács-Kiskun County, that also uses the historical coat of arms with St. Peter in its dexter half.
  • Banat. The golden lion rampant on red holding a sabre was the coat of arms of the Tamis Bannate (German: Temescher Banat; Serbian: Tamiški Banat), whose name more frequently used in English is the Bannate of Temesvár (after its capital, present-day Timişoara, Romania). It was an Austrian crown land, its Governor (never styled a ban, though) responding directly to the Emperor, and existed from 1718, when the area was taken over from the Ottoman Empire, to 1779, when it was incorporated into Hungary and divided into the counties of Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény. What is considered the Banat in Vojvodina, comprises most of the territory of Torontál, smaller (southern) part of Temes and a small area in the south-west of Krassó-Szörény. The rest of Krassó-Szörény, larger (central and northern) part of Temes and a smaller (northern) part of Torontál are nowadays in Romania and a small area in the north-west of Torontál has remained in Hungary. These borders were established after the First World War.
    The coat of arms of the Bannate of Temesvár is derived from the oldest arms of the Hapsburg family, which were: Or a lion rampant gules armed langued and crowned azure. The arms denote the land as the Emperor's personal possession (hence the lion, only without the crown, and the colours, or and gules reversed and azure excluded, or in its place), which is situated at the border with the Ottoman Empire (hence the sabre in lion's paw). The coat of arms is nowadays used only in the part of Banat in Vojvodina.
    The coat of arms of the part of Banat in Romania is partly based on it, too: gules over waves azure a bridge with two arched openings or wherefrom issuing a demi-lion or holding a sabre in its right forepaw. Half of the lion also appears on the arms of Timiş county in Romania. The part of Banat in Hungary is nowadays incorporated into the county of Csongrád and uses its coat of arms, which was amended (in the fourth quarter) with that of Torontál to denote this territorial change.
    For the part of the three counties founded in 1779, only the coat of arms of Temes was partly based on that of the Bannate of Temesvár. It was granted in 1799 by Maria Theresia, and was inspired by the civic arms of Temesvár, the county capital. The coat of arms is: per fess and in chief per pale, 1. Hungary Modern (double cross), 2. per fess sable a demi-lion rampant issuant or holding in dexter a scimitar argent and azure three wavy barullets argent, 3. Temesvár fort proper, overall a bar or inscribed sable II.J. M.T. (Joseph II and Maria Theresia). The three wavy lines are for three main rivers, Dunav (Duna), Tamiš (Temes) and Moriš (Maros).
  • Srem. The third coat of arms is that of Srem (Hungarian Szerèm; Croatian Srijem), granted in 1747 by Queen Maria Theresa. While the other two were directly under the Hungarian Crown, Srem was part of the Croatian-Slavonian Crown.
    After the First World War, it remained in the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. When the Croatian Bannate was formed within Yugoslavia in 1939 it was also entirely part of it, and in 1941 it was part of the Axis puppet Independent State of Croatia.
    After the Second World War, the borders between the Republics were designed, which are known as the AVNOJ borders. The eastern part of Srem was incorporated into Vojvodina. After the breakup of former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the eastern part of Srem remained there.
    The modern Croatian county of Vukovar-Srijem uses the same coat of arms.
    The three white stripes on blue, representing the three rivers of Srem: Bosut, Sava and Danube. The deer that is resting on the ground is close to the poplar (topola) green tree. The tree changed though the history. In the original grant the tree was a cypress tree. The modern Croatian design prefered it to make it an oak tree, which is abundant in the region and is a kind of a national symbol. Similarly, poplar is connected to Serbia (the royal family stems from a place named Topola).

Željko Heimer, Zikica Milošević & Tomislav Todorović, 25 July 2006