Last modified: 2006-01-07 by santiago dotor
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I recently saw a facsimile copy of a 1752 book on shipbuilding, with large illustrations showing different views of a contemporary vessel. The stern view showed two ensigns, apparently flying from two halyards on the same pole:
Santiago Dotor, 18 October 2000
At that time there was a change on the ensigns used by Spanish ships, as Charles II (1665-1700) started flying his royal arms as an ensign instead of the Burgundy cross. Philip V (1701-1746) definitely dropped the Burgundy cross even from his royal arms.
My guess is that the red Burgundy cross over white was still used as a jack and the royal arms over white as ensign. From a stern view, maybe the drawing shows both and on different levels to be able to distinguish them? I just checked a very good book called El Buque en la Armada Española (The Ship in the Spanish Navy), Silex Ediciones, Madrid 1999, ISBN 84-7737-084-2, which has about the same thing described by Santiago Dotor different proportions, though in a drawing on p. 189 of the ship Africa, built in 1752.
Gradually, the usage of the white flag with red Burgundy cross came to an end, even as a secondary flag, and in 1785 the problematic usage of white ensigns with symbols (Burgundy cross and/or royal arms) was solved by introducing the current red-gold-red ensign.
José Carlos Alegría, 18 October 2000
I wonder whether the white flag with the royal achievement was used at all as an ensign before Charles II, for instance on royal ships.
As for José Carlos Alegría's guess, that is definitely not the case. The several views in that book are not artistic depictions of a ship, but high precision, naval engineering drawings. So the stern view shows clearly the stern with all its elements, the mizzenmast behind and nothing more. Both ensigns obscure somewhat the top of the stern, so it is not possible for any of them to be flying anywhere else than at the ensign pole(s). Besides, I cannot imagine a jack that size (about 15m x 15m or more)...
Please note that the ship illustrated on the book is a merchant ship. Maybe the Burgundy cross was discarded as naval ensign but kept being used for other uses. Actually Calvo and Grávalos 1983 shows a blue flag with a white burgundy cross, saying that it was a merchant flag used until the late 1770s.
Santiago Dotor, 19 October 2000
I recently saw a facsimile copy of a 1752 book on shipbuilding, with (...) a stern view showing (...) an enormous, almost square ensign (about as high as the ship itself, without the masts, ca. 15m x 15m or even larger) showing the Burgundy cross on a clear field (probably white). (...)
Santiago Dotor, 18 October 2000
According to the Diccionario Enciclopédico Ilustrado de la Lengua Española Sopena, Barcelona, 1954, a bandera de combate or 'combat flag' is "a national flag, very large sized, which is hoisted over the stern of warships when they go into battle or in very solemn events". Is this the practice of Spanish ships? Depictions of sea battles of the 15th to 19th centuries usually show that most warships of different nationalities have large flags and pennants, not only Spanish ships but also Dutch, Portuguese and British. However, it might be that the Spanish Navy's flags were unusually larger than the rest. A book I have on piracy and the Spanish Armada (Heretics in Paradise: English corsairs and sailors on the Venezuelan shores during the second half of the 16th Century, Colección Quinto Centenario del Encuentro de Dos Mundos, Editorial Arte, Caracas, 1994) has several illustrations of sea battles and particular ships. Even though all ships bear many different flags of large size and bright colours, it is certainly the Spanish fleet which boasts the largest 'combat flags'. We should remember that ensigs and war pennants had an enormous estrategic importance in naval warfare.
Guillermo Aveledo, 29 October 2000
A Royal Order of 20th January 1732 organized the Navy into three Squadrons. Source: Fernández Gaytan 1985.
Sergio Camero, 1 June 2002
This is the relevant text of the Royal Order of 20th January 1732, from Sergio Camero's Banderas Militares website:
...Teniendo el Rey resuelto que el cuerpo de navíos de la Armada se divida en tres escuadras, y que cada una de ellas tenga su puesto en un Departamento de los tres establecidos en España, como son Cádiz, Ferrol y Cartagena, ha deliberado S.M para que cada una de estas divisiones se conozca por las banderas e insignias de que han de usar, lleven todos los navíos de cualquiera de las tres referidas escuadras, los pabellones o banderas largas de popa, blanca, con el escudo de las armas reales en la forma que se practica.My translation:
Los navíos que se armasen en Cádiz, usarán en las insignias de banderas cuadras, cornetas, rabos de gallo, gallardetes, banderas de proa, de botes, de lanchas, sobre blanco el referido escudo de armas reales.
Los navíos que se armasen en Ferrol, en todas las referidas insignias y banderas de proa, de botes y lanchas, de la cruz de Borgoña, sobre blanco con cuatro anclas en los extremos del cuadrado que forma la referida cruz.
Los navíos que se armasen en Cartagena usarán en las mencionadas insignias y banderas de proa, de botes y lanchas, sobre color morado el escudo de armas reales sencillo, de castillos y leones y cuatro anclas a las esquinas...
...Having the King decided that the Navy's corps of vessels be divided into three squadrons, and that each of them have its seat in one of the three Departments established in Spain, namely Cádiz, Ferrol and Cartagena, H.M. has deliberated so that each of these divisions is known by the ensigns and rank flags which they shall use, all the vessels of any of the three referred squadrons shall fly the ensigns or long stern flags [sic], white, with the escutcheon of the royal arms in the usual way.Please note that the war ensign was the same for all three squadrons, very similar or identical to the Cádiz Squadron flag. The three squadron flags were used for other purposes: command flags, commissioning pennants, jacks, boat and launch flags etc. but not as ensigns.
Vessels built at Cádiz, shall use in the command flags [made up] of square flags, swallowtailed flags, pennants, jacks, boat and launch flags, on a white field the referred escutcheon of the royal arms.
Vessels built at Ferrol, in all the referred command flags and jacks, boat and launch flags, the cross of Burgundy, on white with four anchors in the corners of the square formed by the referred cross.
Vessels built at Cartagena shall use in the above mentioned command flags and jacks, boat and launch flags, on a purple field the simple [i.e. lesser] royal arms, of castles and lions and four anchors on the corners...
Santiago Dotor, 1 March 2005