Last modified: 2005-12-03 by ivan sache
Keywords: menen | menin | stars: 3 (yellow) |
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Municipal flag of Menen - Image by Arnaud Leroy, 31 July 2005
The municipality and town (Stad) of Menen (in French, Ménin; 32,322 inhabitants on 31 December 2004; 3,306 ha) is located on the river Leie (in French, Lys), which forms the border with French until Wervik, facing the French city of Halluin (in Dutch, Halewijn), 11 km south-west of Kortrijk and 15 km north of Lille (France; in Dutch, Rijsel). The municipality is made since 1977 of the former municipalities of Menen (19,472 inh.), Lauwe (8,306 inh.) and Rekkem (4,544 inh.).
The origin of the name of Menen is obscure and several hypotheses have been proposed. Sanderus (1732) claimed that Menen came from Mennen, to conduct (over the Leie). Lansens (1841) believed that Menen came from Meënte, pastures in common use. Meynne (1860) related Menen to Menhem, a building or a stable where horses rested and were fed before resuming their trip along the Leie. Kanon Desmet (1864) thought that Menen was originally Menheim, a German colony set up on the Leie, and related etymologically Menheim to Mannheim, in Germany. Gysseling claimed that Menin was the name of a prehistoric colony derived from Maininion. Finally, De Vries claimed that Menen came from Maininium, meaning common possession.
A parish church is mentioned in Menen in 1087, which indicates that a
settlement already existed a that time. The settlement probably
developed along a straight path, today Bruges Street and Lille Street,
which linked the two important market places of Torhout (later Bruges) and Lille, and crossed the Leie, known as the Golden River in Menen.
The noble family of Menen emerged in the XI-XIIth century. The four sons of the lord of Menen were once lords of Saint-Omer (now in France), Bergues (now in France), Veurne and Diksmuide. Another seven brothers were among the notables of the city of Menen. The house of Menen was a powerful clan in the County of Flanders.
In the XIVth century, the family of Menen fell into decline. In contrast, the city of Menen developed thanks to the cloth industry. Count of Flanders Lodewijk van Male granted municipal rights to Menen in 1351. The city was allowed to manufacture cloth and to have a weekly market. The wealth of Menen increased for the next two centuries because of the international reputation of cloth produced there. In the XVIth century, this activity declined and was replaced by brewing industry. Brewers were granted privileges and there were 104 master brewers in Menen in 1520.
In 1548, a huge blaze destroyed three-quarters of the city. Black
plague reached Menen, followed by the religious troubles. Several
supporters of the new (Protestant) ideas left the cities; other were
arrested, sentenced and executed.
The building of the belfrey of Menen started in 1574 and was stopped two years later because of the religious troubles. The building site resumed in 1610 under the guidance of master mason Jan Persyn, from Kortrijk. The belfrey was further increased and revamped in 1711, 1828 and 1932. In 1999, the belfreys of several Belgian cities were registered on the list of World Heritage by UNESCO. The belfreys of the French Flemish cities were added to the list in 2005.
A first city wall was built in 1578 by the Spaniards. Menen was
incorporated to France in 1667 following the Devolution War, which was
confirmed by the treaties of Aachen (1668) and Nijmegen (1678). In
1679, Louis XIV asked Vauban to increase the fortifications of the
city, which was part of the first line of the pré-carré (lit., a
square pasture, indeed the king's "private preserve" where the enemy
should not enter). The fortifications were completed in 1685,
surrounding a 64-ha area. For the next two centuries, Menen was a
strategic gateway. The fortifications were destroyed several times in
the XVIIIth century, including by King Louis XV.
In the XVIIIth century, the border between France and the Austrian Netherlands was delimited, following an agreement between King Louis XVI end Empress Maria-Theresia. The boundary stones had on the French side the Bourbon's three fleurs-de-lis and on the Austrian side the Hapsburg's double-headed eagle.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna ordered the fortification of the
southern Netherlands in order to dissuade the French from reconquest
attempts. Menen was part of a fortification line including Ieper,
Oudenaarde, Tournai, Mons, Charleroi, Philippeville, Mariembourg,
Namur, Huy and Liège. The borders between France and the Netherlands
were set up once again and described in great detail by the agreement of
Kortrijk in 1820.
The fortifications of Menen were eventually suppressed in 1852 but the city has kept several remains of them, which is quite unusual in Flanders.
In the late XIXth century, the north of France became progressively a big cloth industry center, whereas linen industry declined in Flanders. Cloth industry attracted several Flemish workers to the French border cities. The population of Menen increased by 133% in one century. In 1886, the Belgians represented 77% of the population in Halluin and there were more Belgians than French in Roubaix and Roncq. At the end of the XIXth century, most Belgians moved back because of the cost of life in France and worked according to a daily or weekly "pendular" schedule (that is they lived in Belgium and went to France every day or for a whole week). The population of Menen increased by 58% from 1880 (11,749) to 1900 (18,611). The "pendular" system disappeared when the cloth industry in the north of France declined at the end of the 1960s.
During the First World War, Menen was located only a few kilometers
behind the frontline. In 1917, the inhabitants had to evacuate the
city, which was severely damaged during the fighting.
On 20 May 1940, several inhabitants of Flanders moved to Menen in order to flee to the south of France. The city was occupied by the Germans until 7 September 1944.
Source: Municipal website
Ivan Sache, 31 July 2005
The municipal flag of Menen is vertically divided red-white with three
yellow stars placed 2 and 1 in canton.
According to Gemeentewapens in België - Vlaanderen en Brussel, the flag was adopted by the Municipal Council on 25 April 1980, confirmed by Royal Decree on 1 October 1980, and published in the Belgian official gazette on 12 December 1980, with the official description:
Twee even lange banen van rood en wit, met in de broektop drie gele vijfpuntige sterren, geplaatst 2 en 1.
Accoirdong to the municipal website, the red and blue colours are taken from the municipal coat of arms of
Menen, whereas the three stars recall the three components of the
municipality. The coat of arms of Lauwe showed a black lion with a red
tongue and claws, a blue crescent placed horizontally between the
forepaws and two red stars placed between the rear paws and near the
tail. The meaning of these arms is unknown.
The coat of arms of Menin is white with three red chevrons. It was adopted simultaneously with the flag, with the official description:
In zilver drie kepers van keel. Het schild getopt met een stedekroon met vijf torens van goud.
The shield is topped with a five-tower golden mural crown.
The arms of Menen before the muncipal fusion were, according to Servais, identical to the arms of the current municipality. They were granted on 30 May 1953 and superseded arms granted in 1824 and confirmed on 7 April 1838, which had black chevrons. The black colour was an unfortunate error in the 1824 grant, since the lords of Menen already used the arms with the red chevrons in the XIIIth century. These arms were consistently used in municipal seals since the XVIth century.
Arnaud Leroy, Pascal Vagnat, Jan Mertens & Ivan Sache, 31 July 2005