Last modified: 2005-10-01 by phil nelson
Keywords: half-mast | new zealand | usa | fort mchenry | germany |
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When: First(?) recorded instance July 1612.
Where: In what is now Canada.
Why: Not definitely known.
If you consider the phrase used, and the practicalities of hoisting flags, it is likely to be of naval origin and probably not earlier than the 14th Century.
Although flag pole is a common phrase no one flies a flag at half-pole. In British English it is, I think without exception, half-mast, and in American English, although Webster lists half-staff, half-mast is the main entry. So, since a mast is on a ship it's of nautical origin.
Also, you can't easily half-mast a flag unless you have a fairly tall 'pole', and a halyard. I think that it's not unreasonable to assume that most land flags of the Middle Ages were carried around on hand-held staffs, and that most flags flown from the tops of buildings were probably the same staffs inserted into sockets. Flags on staffs are usually tied on, tacked on, or have a sleeve at the hoist into which the staff is inserted. Not easy to half-mast.
It's probable that at this time, tall poles with a suitable hoisting mechanism were found only on ships, and that ships with masts of this size did not become common until around the 1300's.
Some earlier accounts of half-masting, refer not only to the flags but also to the sails. In a book entitled "Naval Customs" written by Lt. Cdr. Leland P. Lovette USN and published by USN Institute in 1934:
"The half-masting of colors is in reality a survival of the days when a slovenly appearance (untidy, careless) characterized mourning. Even in the British Merchant Service today there are recent cases of trailing rope ends, 'slacking off' of rigging, and scandalizing yards as a sign of mourning."
He goes on to describe the last occasion on which Royal Navy ships 'cock-billed' their yards whilst lying off Lisbon after the murder of Don Carlos King of Portugal in 1908. When possible, it seems that the sails were deliberately set badly, not fully hoisted, yards scandalized or askew, "cock-billed as a sign of mourning". The idea was that an untidy, slovenly, careless appearance where one would normally expect to see everything 'ship-shape', indicated mourning. This concept goes back a long way. I seem to remember passages in the Bible that refer to people tearing their clothes and rubbing ashes into their hair when in mourning.
It has just occurred to me that a ship that had been in battle would have an disheveled appearance, so perhaps there was also the idea of simulating the aftermath of a battle with its consequent deaths.
Half-masting a flag is probably the last symbolic gesture of what was once in some cultures a common way of showing grief.
Some suggest that the part lowering of a flag indicates the passing of the authority represented by the flag, or that it is to leave space for 'the invisible flag of death' to be flown above the lowered flag, but these are modern attempts to explain a practice which has much older origins.
The reference to 1612? "on the occasion of the murder of James Hall by Esquimoes during the first expedition in search of the North-West Passage, in which Baffin took part, when the 'Heart's Ease' rejoined the 'Patience' with "her flag hanging down and her ensign hanging over the poop, which was a sign of death". On entering the Thames two months later the 'Heart's Ease' again lowered her flag and ensign "in token and in sign of the death of Mr. Hall", so that it was at that date well understood to signify the death of the commanding officer of a ship." from "British Flags" by W.G.Perrin.
The idea that a slovenly appearance at sea is a sign of mourning is in
"Naval Customs, Tradition and Usage" by L.P. Lovette.
David Prothero, 28 February 1998, 25 May 1998
In his book 'Signal', Captain Barrie Kent writes that in 1952, Buckingham Palace asked the Board of Admiralty for information on the origin of the custom of half-masting colours to signify a death. The Archivist Peter Kemp replied:
The earliest record we have of the lowering of a flag to signify a death was an occasion in 1612, when the Master of the 'Hearts Ease', William Hall, was murdered by Eskimos while taking part in an expedition in search of the North West Passage. On rejoining her consort, the vessel's flag was flown trailing over the stern as a mark of mourning. On her return to London, the 'Hearts Ease' again flew her flag over the stern and it was recognised as an appropriate gesture of mourning.David Prothero, 26 July 1997
It was the habit, after the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, for ships of the Royal Navy to fly their flags at half-mast on the anniversary of the execution of King Charles I on 30th January 1649, and it is from this custom that, so far as we can trace, the present practice of announcing a death by the flying of a flag at half-mast has evolved. The earlier practice at sea was to fly a black flag or to set a black sail.
We know that the hoisting of black sails was a sign of mourning from the very earliest times. The black sail was superseded by the black flag, probably because it was a nuisance to have to carry black sails for use only on rare occasions. It was probably the position, rather than the colour, that caught the attention, particularly at a distance.
According to US Navy custom, there is/was only one flag that could be flown above the US national flag . . . this was the church flag (white pennant, blue cross lengthwise), flown during religious services. This might have been amended since to include the UN flag, but it was not permitted then. Having some familiarity with US Navy tradition, I doubt it.
The national flag was two blocked (raised to the top of the halyard) and flown there. When flown at half mast, it was first two blocked and then lowered to the proper position half way down the length of the halyard (rope). The reverse was done when lowering the flag at sunset.
Only the national flag was flown from a single halyard, but that might have been done otherwise by other services or when used by civilians. There were only two sites where the flag could be flown at night: Fort McHenry and the battleship Arizona memorial. This custom has been amended since so that the flag can be flown at night if illuminated. Naturally, the flag can be flown anytime during battle.
It is only natural that customs differ elsewhere, particularly in those
countries having a history much older then here. I'd be most interested in
hearing about them.
I realize that I know nothing of the vexillological world, but any language can be translated into another, even specialized jargon. It is odd that no other Spanish speaking person thought of it, while reading this article, but the word "mástil" in Spanish is used for a ship's "mast" as well as a flag's "pole"; and after a very small research (opening two encyclopedic dictionaries -a Spanish one and an English one-), I realized two things: The first is that in Spanish the word "mástil" is used in that way because one of its meanings is simply "Palo derecho que sirve para mantener una cosa" ["Upright pole that is used to maintain something in position"] not specifically a flag's pole; and the second was that in English the word "mast" is not only appropriate for a ship's mast but it also has a very similar meaning to that one of "mástil", this one being "Any large, upright pole, as of a derrick, crane, etc.".
After this, I found out that the Spanish word comes from the Romance
language one "mástel" and that even French has the word "mât",
with a very similar meaning. I haven't been able to find the origin of "mástel"
yet, but it seems clear that it is not etymologically incorrect to use this
word, or its derivates in any language, to refer to a flag's pole. Even if the
term used widely in English is pole, and an option to "half mast"
would be "half staff", there is no real reason to use any of these
over the others. I believe that the last two are both equally correct, and no
discussion should come from their use.
Pablo Bolognesi, 7 September 2004
In the United States the flag is flown at half-staff, by order of the
President, to honor the memory of high ranking government officials upon their
James Dignan, Nathan Augustine, T.W. Hall and Anton Sherwood all mention that flags are flown at half mast in memorial of the dead by schools, corporations, fire stations, government institutions and individuals.
My understanding is that the flag is theoretically not flown at "half" mast, but one flag's depth down from the masthead (in practice, it's often more than that) to allow for the "invisible flag of death" to be flown at the top of the mast. The idea goes back to mediaeval times, I think.
The same protocol applies in New Zealand for deaths of the head of state
and other Royal Family members, the Governor General, the Prime Minister and
other Ministers of the Crown. The days on which the flag is half masted (day
of death, day of funeral, days in between) vary according to the status of the
deceased. ANZAC Day (our Memorial Day equivalent) is another half-mast day
(usually morning only). Of course, many official and private organizations
also half mast the flag in respect of deaths of other people of special
significance to them.
In Denmark flying half-mast is the appropriate thing to do at
funerals and on some holidays (Good Friday comes to mind).
Ole Andersen, 13 December 1997
This is originally a naval term, referring to the pole or area on the mast
of a ship where the flag is flown under way. This area is about three flag
widths tall above the ship's main structure to allow for the occasional
two-flag display (the US flag always on top) and room for lowering the flag to
half mast. Because the mast area and the pole at a ship's stern are short,
half mast is one flag width below the top. A flag pole is not a mast, so the
flag should not be flown half-way up a tall pole. It is properly raised
briskly to the block (top) and lowered slowly one flag width to the
"half-mast" position. This makes it clearly not
"two-blocked" and signals respect, but still keeps the flag high
enough to prevent fouling and the sloppy appearance of a "half-pole"
position, especially if the flag is very large. The flag, even at half mast,
should be fully visible and flying freely and proudly in the wind.
I'm sure I'm not any kind of authority on proper flag etiquette but I would like to respond to the letter from Richard Olson.
It seems to me that even though the "half-mast" is a naval term, it has become a common and proper term in American English (and British English?). Also, flags flying at the actual half-pole position, seems to me to be 'proper' since that is what I've seen all my life.
Trying to imagine what a flag would look like at one flag width below the top, seems like it would appear that someone made a mistake about the position of the flag. A flag at the half-mark of a pole is clearly intended to be there and has always made me query as to who died.
Also, Mr. Olson says that the flag is only one flag width below the top because it is short. But the fact is, is that it IS at half-mast. Were the mast on the ship to be taller, would it still have been at half-mast? Or is the rule in the Navy, one flag-width below the top no matter what the height of the mast?
Nonetheless, whether the origin of the flag being at half-pole is from the Navy or elsewhere, it certainly has become proper to lower it to half-mast (mast is also defined as a vertical or near vertical pole: Webster) in our culture and society today and I see no reason to change it.
The act of raising it to the top of the block, then to half-mast when
raising the flag and then raising it again to the block before lowering it
seems logical to me. The placement of the flag at half-mast is not the 'norm'
for the placement of the flag. Its symbolic representation of the nation
(branch of military, etc.) should be at a high point for all to see and
respect. The 'lack of respect' of placing the flag at half-mast seems, to me,
to place the nation second to the death of an important figure. Raising the
flag to the block before and after raising it seems symbolic that this is
where the flag should be but because of a great loss due to death, we will
forgo that place of honor so as to honor the dead more. Returning the flag
again to the block returns the flag to its honored position saying (maybe)
that the nation goes on despite the death.
Duane Streufert posted an article concerning
the etiquette of flying the flag at half mast from the Nov.-Dec. 1994 National
Flag Foundations "Standard Bearer" Magazine. This article remains
the copyrighted material of the National Flag Foundation and is presented here
Nathan Augustine posted a reply.
In Spain, the most frequent alternative to flying a flag half mast to
indicate mourning is to stitch a small piece of black material (a short
cravatte, a square piece of material, occasionally even a black Handkerchief)
to the centre of the flag. This is done almost only with flags not intended
for hoisting, such as flags displayed on balconies etc. Flags not intended for
hoisting but which would be inappropriately defaced by such an addition
(namely military colours) tend to use a black cravatte attached to the finial.
Santiago Dotor, 27 April 2001
The US Department of Defense Directive 1005.6 (27 May 2000) now mandates
that "The term "half-staff" means the position of the flag when
it is one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff."
This is (all too typically) a case of standardization that fails to take into
account empirical realities that were more than adequately covered already by
individual service regulations--things like flagpoles with crosstrees, guy
cables, and those standing too close to buildings for the flag to fly free if
positioned exactly half-way up the pole.
Joe McMillan, 12 September 2002
Here is an event of which I was previously unaware. During the first attempt to lay the Trans-Atlantic cable in the 1850's, the cable being laid by the USS Niagara parted and was lost. The USS Niagara lowered her ensign to half-mast and the other ships (apparently the USS Susquehanna, the HMS Agamemnon, the HMS Leopard and the HMS Cyclops) followed suit.
Is anyone aware of half-staffing or half-masting for something other than
the death of a person?
Jim Ferrigan, 6 December 2002
The loss of the cable is described in volume seven of Laird Clowes'
"Royal Navy" without any reference to ensigns being
half-masted. I wonder if the report was a mis-understanding of the incident ?
Perhaps the ships of the two navies were observing normal courtesies and
dipping their ensigns in salute as they parted company ?
David Prothero, 7 December 2002
The incident is reported in Gordon, John Steele, A Thread Across the Ocean, Walker & Co., New York, 2002, p.98.
The text goes on to say that some of the ships remained on station after
the half-masting so it doesn't seen to be a parting salute.
Jim Ferrigan, 7 December 2002
The rules on half-masting in New Zealand don't specify one width below the top - that is apparently the minimum that a flag should be lowered in order to be half-masted. The full text of this section of the booklet, "The New Zealand Flag," are as follows:
The flag is half-masted by first raising it to the top of the mast and then immediately lowering it slowly to the half-mast position. The half-mast position will depend on the size of the flag and the length of the flagpole. The flag must be lowered to a position recognisably "half-mast" to avoid the appearance of a flag which has accidentally fallen away from the top of the flagpole. The flag should always be more than its own depth from the top of the flagpole.
In practice, lowering by one flag-width or slightly more seems to be the
normal half-mast position. It is certainly rare to see a flag literally
halfway up the mast. Even the diagram shown in the booklet shows a flag about
2/3 of the way up the mast.
James Dignan, 20 September 2003
Some websites I found on the CBC web page, of a vexi-nature (CBC is the
government-sponsored broadcaster in Canada) http://cbc.ca/news/indepth/words/flagflap.html
David Kendall, 9 November 2000
It is clear that although "half-mast" is more common in usage in
the United States, the correct term is in fact "half-staff". This is
somewhat intuitive, since "masts" are on ships and a
"flagstaff" is on land. (What's more than one?
"Flagstaffs"? "Flagstaves"? The Merriam-Webster Dictionary
gives both plurals as correct for the word "staff"...) Of course,
"flagpole" is also a common term, and "half-pole" is
Stever Kramer, 13 November 2000
My impression is the same as Steve's, that people here in the U.S. tend to say "half-mast" even though the legal term is "half-staff."
Naval usage, whether referring to a ship or a shore installation, is
"half-mast." That includes the US Marine Corps and Coast Guard.
Joe McMillan, 19 November 2000
In Britain we say "half-mast". It's even a colloquial term used
for anything that isn't quite as high as it should be, such as the mother
telling her son that his trousers are at half-mast.
Graham Bartram, 13 November 2000
In France, we usually do not use the direct translation, which would be 'mi-hampe' (staff) or 'mi-mât' (mast), but 'EN BERNE' ('mettre un drapeau en berne' = half-staff or -mast a flag).
In his 'Dictionnaire de la langue francaise' (1872, suppl. 1877), P.E. Littré wrote:
"BERNE Mar. Pavillon en berne : Pavillon hissé mais roulé sur lui-même." (Mar. Ensign hoisted, but furled on itself.)
In his 'Dictionnaire alphabétique et analogique de la langue francaise'(6 vol., 1955), P. Robert wrote :
"BERNE n.f. (1672; origine obscure) Mar. Pavillon en berne : hissé á mi-mât en signe de deuil ou de de'tresse. Par ext. Drapeau en berne : non deployé, roulé." (Mar. Ensign 'en berne': hoisted at half-mast as a sign of mourning or distress.) By extension. Flag 'en berne': not unfurled, furled.)
'Petit Larousse Illustre' (1991) says:
"BERNE n.f. (du néerl. berm, repli ?) [from Dutch berm, withdrawal?] Pavillon, drapeau en berne : Hissé á mi-drisse en signe de deuil" (Ensign, flag 'en berne': hoisted at half-halyard as a sign of mourning.)
There was therefore an evolution in the concept of BERNE: Littré listed only the maritime use, and mentioned only furling of the ensign, not half-staffing. Robert, as expected, gave the most comprehensive definition, including use on land and at sea, half-staffing and furling. Larousse dropped the furling, which seems to be incorrect regarding the current use: on buildings, when the staff is oblique and short, the flag is furled around it because it cannot be properly half-staffed. The vertical banners are also furled at the lower, floating edge.
I would be very interested in learning the use or non-use of BERNE in other countries where French is spoken.
Another way of signalling mourning on sailing ships is described in 'Grand Larousse du XXé siécle' (1928), as:
"PANTENNE (du provencal moderne pantano) Vergues mises en pantenne : que l'on dispose en croix de Saint-André en signe de deuil" (Yards displayed in 'pantenne': displayed in a St. Andrew's cross pattern, as a sign of mourning).
Then it is said:
"When the captain of a vessel has passed away, the ensign is put 'en berne'; for the death of a squadron commander or a national mourning, the yards are displayed 'en pantenne'. When a vessel transports a dead man to the land, the ensign is put 'en berne' until coming alongside. On sea, the ensign put 'en berne' means that the vessel has a man missing on board (fallen into the sea). Putting the ensign 'en berne' is also a way to require a pilot or assistance."
I have a scrapbook full of notes concerning the flag terminology in French
and its evolution. I shall try in the future to clear up my notes and send the
results to the list. It would be interesting to confront them with similar
studies in other languages, too.
Ivan Sache, 14 November 2000
After the Erfurt school massacre all Germany was flagged at half staff. Especially schools, that usually do not display flags, had flagged, for instance my old school at Gars am Inn, where I had never seen a flag before. As many flags could not be lowered to half-staff (especially the common vertical flags), they added mourning bands at the top of the flag. In the Ludwigstraße in Munich, one of the major streets with many ministries and other offices, it was interesting to observe which different ways they flagged. Most of the offices displayed the German flag plus either the Bavarian or the EU flag, as they usually have two flag-staffs, not three. The Bavarian Ministry of the Interior showed only the Bavarian and the EU flag, no German flag; I think this was clearly against the usual protocol. The Bayerisches Landeszentralbank (Bavarian State Central Bank) was the only one showing the federal service flag instead of the federal flag; I wasn't aware of the fact, that this bank (as part of the Bundesbank, the Federal Bank) is entitled to do so.
During the central funeral service for the victims in Erfurt, 3 May, three flags were displayed in the banner version, with mourning bands attached: the service flag of Thuringia (as sent by me 7 October 2001), the flag of Erfurt (see de-th-ef.html), and the German national flag.
There was even an article on half-staffing (in the series "Aktuelles Lexikon" = "Topical Lexicon) in the Süddeutsche Zeitung. A translation follows:
Since a week the national flags in Germany are flown at half-staff, as a sign of mourning for the victims of the murders at Erfurt. Mourning flagging is ordered by the Federal Ministry of the Interior directing the federal offices and departments. The ministries of the states are informed. They can decide on their own then, how they proceed, including the cities and municipalities. These inform important institutions and bigger enterprises. Therefore also from the editorial building of the Süddeutsche Zeitung in Munich flags with mourning bands are flying. The black bands are used, if the flags can't be hoisted at half-staff. For a nation-wide mourning flagging there can be different occasions: disasters like in Erfurt or on 11 September in New York; the death of important persons and foreign heads-of-state; furthermore the two regular dates, the Memorial Day and the Day of Memory for the Victims of the National Socialism. The tradition stems from shipping in hte 17th century. Today it is commonplace all over the world. The lowering of the flag is to be understood as a symbol for the bow to the dead ones. Therefore the flag (according to the regulation of the federal government) "is first hoisted to the top and immediately afterwards lowered to half-staff".
- own observations first weeks of May 2002
- Süddeutsche Zeitung 4/5 May 2002, p. 1 and p. 6
- Süddeutsche Zeitung 3 May 2002, p. 2: Aktuelles Lexikon, signed "makr"
Marcus E.V. Schmöger, 26 May 2002
After putting out our flag this morning, we received a call from that is should be at half-mast today. We knew this. but our flag is on a fixed mast and cannot be moved up or down. Although we continued to fly it was it was.........I've been wondering...what should you do in a case such as this? Not fly it or leave it at full mast when it should be at half-mast?
Specifically I have been recommending US AR 840-10, 2-4 Position and Manner
of Display, section (4) paragraph h Placed in mourning.
by troops will not be placed in mourning unless ordered by the President or
the secretary of the Army. When so ordered a streamer of black crepe 7 feet
long and 1 foot wide will be to the staff at the center of the streamer
immediately below the spearhead of the US flag and the organizational flag.
(See fig. 2-9)"
Figure 2-9 shows the streamer tied into a bow.
If black crepe or ribbon is unavailable in that length and with then I've
been recommending black ribbon of sufficient length and width so as to be
easily seen and understood as a mourning cravat.
Jim Ferrigan, 11 September 2002
When Queen Ingrid (mother of Queen Margrethe II) died, the Copenhagen
metropolitan buses were faced with the same problem - they have these small
poles, from which they fly the Dannebrog when there are official state visits
or on ordinary flag days. These poles can not fly flags on the half, so in
order to show that the flag-flying was a matter of mourning rather than
celebration, they attached small black ribbons to the upper hoist corner of
Ole Andersen, 11 September 2002
Am I wrong in thinking that a command flag is a personal flag, and that
personal flags are half-masted only on the death of the person they represent,
and on no other occasion?
David Prothero, August 2005
You are quite correct. An appropriate example at this imminent bi-centenial of Trafalgar, is that Collingwood learned that he is now in command of the fleet, at the moment when the vice-admiral's flag in Victory was half-masted.
The ensign (and jack alongside or at anchor) is normally only half-masted
when ordered for a national occasion of mourning such as at the death of a
prominent national figure or for a national disaster, or in sympathy with
foreign ships in company who has half-masted for similar reasons. Also when a
member of a ship's company has died on board and while the body is still on
board, the ensign may be half-masted until the moment that the body goes over
the side (being piped over the side irrespective of rank). This is of course a
peace time practice and does not apply during action, except for flag officers
being killed which has an effect on the chain of command. While a body is
being transported ashore in a boat, the boat's ensign will also be
half-masted. For the burials at sea of casualties during war-time, the ship's
engines will be stopped and the ensign halfmasted for the duration of the
service and re-hoisted immediately on completion. In peace time if a body is
brought aboard for burial at sea, the ensign would be half-masted (and the
jack too if at anchor or alongside) from the moment the body comes on board
(piped again) until the moment it is consigned to the deep, at which point the
ensign is again re-hoisted close-up. This does not apply for the strewing of
ashes although a service might again be conducted. In all cases, if a burial
service is conducted, whether by a chaplain or read by the captain, the Church
pennant will also be hoised for the duration to inform ships in company.
Andries Burgers, 16 August 2005
I think that we have to be a bit careful about definitions here, a command flag is a 'distinguishing' or 'rank' flag, and represents the office of the user rather than the person themselves. Whereas the 'personal' flags for Her Majesty's use abroad, (Canada, Australia etc) whilst being her distinguishing flags as head of state, also bear her monogram and are thus personal to her.
Without checking Queen's Regulations for the Royal Navy, I seem to remember
that the command flag of an admiral may only be half-masted upon the death of
the admiral it represents, and only then whilst his body remains on board
(with it being struck after his burial at sea or when the body was removed)?
Christopher Southworth, 16 August 2005
US Navy Regulations are essentially as Chris says. Article 1264: "3. Personal flags, command pennants and commission pennants shall not be displayed at half-mast except as prescribed in these regulations for a deceased official or officer." Table 10, "Death of a Person in the Military Service," lays out the rules, which are restated somewhat more clearly in NTP-13(B), "Flags, Pennants, and Customs":
912. b. The personal flag, command or commission pennant of a ship or unit commanded by the following officers shall be half-masted from the time of their death until sunset of the day of the funeral or until the removal of the body from the ship or station [and then hauled down, according to Navy Regs--JM].
(1) Chairman or former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
(2) United States Military officer of 5-star rank
(3) Chief or former Chief of Naval Operations
(4) Commandant or former Commandant of the Marine Corps
(5) Commandant or former Commandant of the Coast Guard
(6) Flag Officer in Command
(7) Unit Commander who is not a flag officer
(8) Commanding Officer of that ship
In the very rare situation that a deceased President's body was transported
aboard ship, I imagine the Navy would follow the same rules as for a deceased
officer in command, but it's hard to imagine that this would ever happen.
Joe McMillan, 16 August 2005