Last modified: 2005-01-22 by ivan sache
Keywords: turkish empires (the sixteen great) |
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The Sixteen Great Turkish Empires (16 büyük Türk imparatorluğunu) are introduced on the website of the Turkish Presidency as follows:
The 16 Great Turkish Empires before the Republic - The Turkish Presidential seal is composed of a sun (16 points/rays) surrounded by 16 stars. The sun represents the present Turkish Republic and the stars represent the 16 independent Turkish Empires that have been founded throughout history.
The 16 Great Turkish Empires are listed on several Turkish sources, such as the websites of the Research Centre for Turkestan and Azerbaijan and the Australian-Turkish Media Group. All sources give an identical presentation of the Empires, which probably comes from some official document. The Empires are listed in chronological order:
Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004
Similarly, the eight-pointed star of Azerbaijan refers to eight major Turkish nations.
António Martins, 12 June 2003
The Presidential seal is shown on the website of the Turkish Presidency surrounded by the flags of the 16 Great Turkish Empires. Starting from the top of the emblem, the flags are arranged clockwise in the chronological order given above.
These flags are also shown on a series of postage stamps released by the Turkish Postal administration.
To the best of our knowledge, the historical existence of most of these flags is not proven and we are not aware of their origin and designer. Any information on these questions would be greatly appreciated.
The flags are shown on four different pages of this website, which can be reached from the list of the Empires given above.
Ivan Sache, 27 November 2003