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Pont-l'Abbé (Municipality, Finistère, France)


Last modified: 2005-03-05 by ivan sache
Keywords: finistere | pont-l'abbe | pont-n'abad | lion (red) |
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[Flag of Pont-l'Abbe]by Arnaud Leroy

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Presentation of Pont-l'Abbé

Pont-l'Abbé (Breton, Pont-n'-Abad, 8,400 inhabitants) is the capital city of the Pays Bigouden, a traditional district located in southern Brittany (Cornouaille).The city of Pont-l'Abbé is located between the end of the estuary of the Rivière de Pont-l'Abbé (in Brittany, rivers are often named after the city built on their estuary) and a big pond.

Like (mostly) everywhere in Brittany, prehistorical megalithic monuments have been found near Pont-l'Abbé, namely the menhirs (erected stones) of Guiric and Pen Laouic (today in the river), and the dolmens (lying stones) of Menez Bodillo and Merc'hen (both destroyed).
After the conquest of Brittany, the Romans built a castrum (fortified camp) on the top of the hill dominating the today's city of Pont-l'Abbé, a place locally called Menez (mount) Roz Ar Hastel. There was a Roman way between Quimper and the point of Penmarc'h.

The name of the city (lit., the Abbot's Bridge) comes from the bridge built between the port and the pond by the monks of the abbey of Loctudy, located on the mouth of the Rivière de Pont-l'Abbé. In the IXth century, the Northmen sailed back the river and trashed the abbey. The monks abandoned the domain of Pont-l'Abbé to feudal lords, who built a small fort in the XIth century. The first known Lord of Pont-l'Abbé is Juhel du Pont, who was captured during the siege of Dol in 1173.

The dynasty of the Barons of Pont throve during the nexts centuries. Several Barons of Pont played an important role in the military and religious history of Brittany. In 1214, Hervé du Pont and his brother Eon were bannerets (i.e., they were allowed to lead their vassals under their own banner) during the battle of Bouvines, when King of France Philippe-Auguste defeated a coalition set up by German Emperor Otto IV, John Lackland, the Count of Flanders and the greater vassals of the Kingdom. In 1223, Hervé du Pont retroceded to the Abbot of Loctudy the rights on the parish and the tax on wine. In 1294, Robert du Pont, Baron Geoffroy's brother, was appointed Bishop of Saint-Malo. Baron Hervé III founded in 1350 the St. Johns' Hospital near the river and the St. Tudy's chaplainy in his castle. In 1383, Baron Hervé IV built a White Friars' monastery, whose chapel became later the parish church, and the first wharf of the port. Baron Hervé VI was killed in 1426 during the siege of Saint-James-de-Beuvron.
In 1441, Jean I du Pont was appointed haut baron (Greater Baron) of Brittany and was invited to the crowning of Duke François I. Baron Pierre fought in 1488 during the siege of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier.

The last Baroness, Louise du Pont, died in 1426. Jean V du Quélennec, grandson of one of Louise's aunts, was granted the barony. Quélennec was sent two times to the King of France Henri II to negotiate franchises for the Duchy of Brittany. In the beginning of the XVIth century, Charles du Quélennec, aka Soubise, converted to the reformed religion. He expelled the chaplains from his castle and led an uprising in Périgord (south-west of France) during the Religious Wars. He was captured and jailed in Jarnac but escaped. He was killed in the court of the palace of Louvre in Paris when defending Admiral de Coligny (1519-1572), the leader of the Protestant party, during the St. Bartholomeuw's slaughter (23-24 August 1572) ordered by Queen of France Catherine de Medicis and the Guise family.

At the end of the XVIth century, the civil war between the Holy League and the Royalists spread to Brittany. The Royalists seized Pont-l'Abbé in 1588 and the castle was looted; its clockwork, then the best in Brittany, was shipped to the neighbouring city of Concarneau. The warlord Guy Eder de la Fontenelle trashed Cornouaille. He set up his headquarters on the Tristan island, off the port of Douarnenez, whose fortifications he had destroyed. In 1595, Fontenelle trashed the village of Penmarc'h; the next year, he killed 1,500 peasants in Plogastel-Saint-Germain. The garrison of Pont-l'Abbé besieged Tristan island, to no avail. In 1598, King of France Henri IV appointed him Governor of the island, provided he stopped his criminal acts. Fontenelle was involved in a plot, arrested, sentenced to death and put on the wheel on the place de Grève in Paris in 1602. Baroness Hélène de Beaumanoir, aged 18, was besieged in 1604 in her castle by an army commanded by her husband and had to surrender.

After the end of the Religious Wars, the Catholic religion was reestablished in Pont-l'Abbé and Loctudy by Reverend Father Le Nobletz. In 1622, the first municipal council was set up in Pont-l'Abbé. The council included 12 bourgeois and 12 craftsmen, and was presided by a Syndic. In 1674, the barony of Pont was transfered to Armand Jean de Vignerot, the grand-nephew of Cardinal de Richelieu.
In 1675, the peasants revolted in the so-called Révolte des Bonnets Rouges (Red Caps' Revolt). Colbert had imposed high taxes in order to fund Louis XIV's war againt Holland. The peasants released their claims in the Code Paysan, approved on 2 July 1675 in the chapel of Treminou. The uprising spread to the whole Pays Bigouden: the lord of Cosquer-en-Combrit was hung by the peasants and the castle of Pont was looted and burned. The White Friars of Pont-l'Abbé were forced to approve the Code Breton, which suppressed the corvée. The revolt was severely repressed by the Duke de Chaulnes, the Governor of Brittany. The bell-towers of the revolted villages (Combrit, Lambour-en-Pont-l'Abbé, Lanvern and Languivoa-en-Plonéour) were pulled down.

In 1685, the barony of Pont was sold to François Joseph d'Ernothon. In 1718, Ernothon approved the claims of the States of Brittany against the absolute power of the King of France and was exiled. His successor Jean Théophile d'Ernothon went mad and jumped out a window of the castle in 1738. The barony was purchased by Henri Baude de Saint-Père in 1753 for 500,000 pounds. The literary critic Elie Fréron (1718-1776), born in Quimper, married in 1766 in the chapel of the castle. Fréron is mostly known as the unfortunate rival of Voltaire, who ridiculed him under the name of Frelon (in French, hornet) in several epigrams.

Pont-l'Abbé lost its prerogatives in the States of Brittany in 1779. The municipality of Pont-l'Abbé was established on 1st February 1790. The village of Lambour was incorporated to the new municipality on 13 December 1790. In 1791, the Constituante Assembly prescribed the limits of the municipality of Pont-l'Abbé, which was increased with four rural districts taken from the neighbouring municipalities of Combrit, Loctudy, Plobannalec and Plomeur. The parish of Pont-l'Abbé was set up the same year. Beforehand, Pont-l'Abbé was divided between the two parishes of Loctudy and Plobannalec, whereas Lambour belonged to Combrit.
In August 1792, baron Jean Georges Claude Baude was involved in the fail attempt of escape of the royal family and had to exile. On 7 November 1793, the name of the city was changed to Pont-Libre (Free Bridge). The castle of Pont was sold in 1799 to François Jérôme Le Déan, and eventually bought by the municipality in 1836, in order to house the City Hall, the Court of Justice, the Gendarmerie and the School.
In 1847, a riot broke out in Pont-l'Abbé when potatoes were loaded on a ship whereas the local population starved.

In the beginning of the XXth century, lace industry was the main activity in Pont-l'Abbé. Strikes regularly broke out because of the miserable condition of the working-class life. In 1961, the farmers demonstrated violently against the low price paid to early potatoes.

As the center of Pays Bigouden, Pont-l'Abbé has two museums dedicated to the Bigouden culture: the Musée Bigouden was set up in 1955 in the castle of Pont, and the Maison du Pays Bigouden was inaugurated in 1984 in the Kerazegan farm.
The most famous element of the Bigouden culture is the headdress. It is said that the height of the headdress was increased after Duke de Chaulnes had demolished the local bell-towers following the Red Caps' uprising, but this is only a legend. The monument aux Bigoudens, built in Pont-l'Abbé by F. Bazin in 1931, shows relatively small headdresses (10 cm-high). The headdresses seem to have increased only after the Second World War, but are hardly seen today, except in religious and folkloric festivals, and of course in the wonderful Bigouden road-movie Western by Manuel Poirier (1997).
The Bigouden culture has been studied and described in great details by the local writer Per Jakez Hélias (1914-1995), especially in his autobiography Le Cheval d'Orgueil (1975).

Source: Municipal website

Ivan Sache, 24 October 2004

Municipal flag of Pont-l'Abbé

The municipal flag of Pont-l'Abbé, as photographied there by Hervé Prat, is horizontally divided in seven stripes, yellow-black-yellow-black-yellow-black-yellow. The first vertical third of the flag (near the hoist) is plain yellow with a red lion.

The municipal arms of Pont-l'Abbé, as shown by Brian Timms, are:

D'or au lion rampant de gueules armé et lampassé d'azur.

that is, Or a lion rampant gules armes and langued azure.
Timms notes that the cover of the Municipal Bulletin of Pont-l'Abbé shows the lion plain red, as does the municipal flag.

Ralf Hartemink shows the greater arms of Pont-l'Abbé, from the Armorial du Finistère by Froger and Pressensé (2001). Here again the lion is plain red. The supporters of the arms are a fisher wearing a red sweater and yellow trousers and holding an anchor, and a peasant wearing the traditional Bigouden costume and holding the flag of the Pays Bigouden. These greater arms must therefore have been designed not earlier than 1996, the year of adoption of the Bigouden flag. I suspect that the flag of Pont-l'Abbé was also inspired by the Bigouden flag.

According to the municipal website of Pont-l'Abbé, the arms or a lion gules belonged to the first dynasty of the Barons of Pont, which dates back at least to the XIth century. The motto of the lords of Pont was Heb Chang (Relentlessly). On the municipal arms, the motto was changed to Heb Ken. According to Per Jakez Hélias, the exact meaning of Heb Ken is obscure; it can be read "No more no less", as a symbol of the Bigoudens, "true to all their defaults and their few virtues" and abalamour eo kaletoh or penn eged kerniel an diaoul ruz (with the head harder than the horns of the red devil).

Ivan Sache, 24 October 2004