Last modified: 2004-06-05 by santiago dotor
Keywords: germany | rhineland | rhine republic |
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N.B.: it is unclear whether both were used, see text
by Rob Raeside and Santiago Dotor, respectively
In 1921 the Rhenish republic was proclaimed in the Rhine zone (Coblenz, Cologne etc.) with the help of France. Several flags were used but I think that the official one was green-white-red. Also is reported vertical green-white-black, but this was probably a local flag or a party flag.
Jaume Ollé, 23 March 1998
There was no revolt against the German government by the people of the Rhineland in 1921. What happened was that the French and Belgians, using non-payment of reparations as a pretext, sent troops into the Rhineland. The French actually planned to detach the Rhineland from Germany as a buffer state under their indirect control. The resulting military occupation provoked widespread passive resistance on the part of the German population. The French proclaimed a "Rhine Republic", I believe, but it had no popular support at all. In Essen, French troops fired on a civilian crowd, killing quite a number of people, and there were violent clashes elsewhere in the Rhineland as well. International opinion rather favored the German side, and finally the French were forced to withdraw.
Tom Gregg, 23 March 1998
The first republic was proclaimed 1st June 1919 by J.A. Dorten and was centered in Wiesbaden. Perhaps the green-white-red flag was used. Also reported was the use of the Westfalian colors of green-white-black horizontally (but also reported as vertically) but this information is uncertain.
In 1923, tension between France and Germany resulted in the Rhenish independentist movement proclaiming the short lived Rhineland Republic (demonstrations started on 23rd September; republic proclaimed 22nd October). President Dorten stabilized a confederate regime with three states: North (Lower Rhine), South (Upper and Middle Rhine) and Ruhr, with capitals in each at in Aix-la-Chapelle [Aachen], Coblenz and Essen; Cologne [Köln] was the headquarters of the confederate government. The Republic was abolished on 27th February 1924. Green, white, red horizontal flag.
Jaume Ollé, modified by Mario Fabretto, 24 August 1998
The first Rhenish Republic after World War I was proclaimed on 1 June 1919, by J. A. Dorten and had its headquarters in Wiesbaden. The use of the traditional flag (green, white and red) or of a green, white and black vertical one (maybe a labor union or political flag) might have been possible.
In 1923, within the tension between France and Germany, the separatists proclaimed an ephemeral Republic of the Rhineland (beginning of the manifestations 23 September; proclamation of the Republic 22 October). Dorten established a confederate regime with three States: North (Lower Rhine), South (Upper and Middle Rhine) and Ruhr, with capital cities in Aix-la-Chapelle, Coblenz and Essen, respectively; Cologne would be the seat of the confederate government. The Republic was dissolved on 27 February 1924. Its flag was the horizontal green, white and red.
Jaume Ollé, translated by Blas Delgado, 13 November 2001